small gullies formed by erosion. The one-ton
supersacks of lime were loaded on a lowboy trailer
using a forklift and were then delivered to the site
where a bucket loader was used for unloading.
The supersacks were picked up with the loader
using four chains placed through loops on the
bag. The bucket loader carried the bags to the
mixing area where three holes were cut in the bot-
tom of the bags. The loader then drove back and
forth to spread the lime (Fig. 8) in lines with piles
of lime where the bags were opened and where
the loader changed directions. Water was then
spread on the lime to hydrate it and wet the clay.
The clay was dry because the soil was sloped and
exposed to the sun.
The scarifying teeth of a grader were used to
mix lime into the soil to a depth of approximately
102 mm (4 in.) (Fig. 9); the soil also was bladed.
Water was added several times until there was
enough moisture for compaction.
A bucket loader was used to stockpile the 102-
mm- (4-in.-) thick soillime mixture for loading
into dump trucks. At times, the thickness of the
soil removed was more than or less than 102 mm
(4 in.). The stockpiling and loading assisted a
Figure 8. Bucket loader spreading lime.
great deal in mixing the soil and lime. The final
lime content, water content, and the mix consis-
tures. Even one or two punctures could allow
tency were not measured.
enough water to reach the encapsulated soil and
cause failure of the MESL.
The puncture test was conducted behind the
A puncture test was conducted to determine
old wash rack on Highway 26. The test section
the amount of protection required for various
was 4.6 m (15 ft) wide and 30 m (100 ft) long. On
membranes. The membranes must be able to sur-
both sides of the test section, a trench 250 mm
vive construction and trafficking with no punc-
(1 ft) deep and 2.4 m (8 ft) wide was dug using the
Figure 9. Grader mixing soil and lime.