marks, depressions, and puncture holes rang-
obvious scratches, very few needle-size punc-
ing from 3 to 10 mm (0.12 to 0.40 in.) in diam-
ture holes, and no depressions on the mem-
RUFCO 2010B. There were 1.2- to 1.8-m (4- to
Composite membrane. The Permalon Ply X-
6-ft) straight scratches on the wheel path, a
210G was tested with no additional protection and
few holes ranging from 2 to 5 mm (0.08 to 0.2
with one and two layers of geotextile for protec-
in.), and a few depressions.
tion. It was more difficult to visually determine if
RUFCO 3010B. There were a few 5- to 10-mm
this membrane was punctured. The geotextile on
(0.2- to 0.4-in.) puncture holes, some depres-
the membrane with no additional protection was
sion marks, and scratch lines ranging from 75
rough and the geotextile was not uniform. This
to 200 mm (3 to 8 in.) in length and 2 to 10 mm
was probably caused by water when the gravel
(0.08 to 0.4 in.) in width on the wheel path.
was washed from the surface. Although no holes
DURA-SKRIM 12 BBR. There were some
were visible, additional protection is recommend-
depressions, some tiny puncture holes, and
ed. The membrane with one and two layers of pro-
some scratches about 75 to 200 mm (3 to 8 in.)
tection performed well with no noticeable holes.
long and 2 to 5 mm (0.08 to 0.2 in.) wide on the
Seam sealing. The seams were intact and
showed no signs of leakage. It was not possible to
Permalon Ply X-210. There were plenty of
successfully seam the two sections of composite
scratch lines on the membrane ranging from
membrane together because one side had the geo-
150 to 250 mm (6 to 10 in.) long and 5 to 12 mm
textile on it. This prevented a direct seal with the
(0.2 to 0.5 in.) wide; these scratch lines had
Absorbent demonstration observations
RUFCO 1010B. There were some holes rang-
The absorbent was very effective at "drying"
ing from 5 to 10 mm (0.2 to 0.4 in.); these were
the dirty sand/gravel soil. Before treatment the
not restricted to the wheel path. There were
test section was impassable for small 4-wheel-
scratch lines and a few depressions.
drive vehicles and extremely difficult to walk
RUFCO 2010B. On the wheel path, there were
across. The absorbent made the section passable to
100- to 200-mm- (4- to 8-in.-) long scratch
small 4-wheel-drive vehicles and walking across
lines, some of which had 2- to 10-mm (0.08- to
the section was very easy after treatment.
0.4-in.) puncture holes and a few depressions.
The section still rutted too much during truck
traffic for use in a MESL. A 152-mm (6-in.) wearing
Other areas of the membrane had no holes
course would reduce rutting but would not elimi-
and no stretch marks.
nate it. Rutting would stress the upper membrane
RUFCO 3010B. This membrane looked nearly
and could lead to punctures and tearing.
new with minimal scratches about 80 to 180
mm (3 to 7 in.) long and about 5 to 10 mm (0.2
to 0.4 in.) wide on the wheel path. These
scratch marks did not have noticeable holes
and there were no depressions on the mem-
Materials and construction
The materials proposed for the new construc-
tion method performed well. The geotextile pro-
DURA-SKRIM 12 BBR. The membrane had a
tected the membranes effectively in the puncture
few 2- to 5-mm (0.08- to 0.2-in.) puncture
test when three layers were used. The tapes were
holes and minimal scratches.
generally easy to apply and formed watertight
Permalon Ply X-210. The membrane looked
seams. However, the tapes would be more difficult
good in most areas except for a few needle-
to use in cold weather.
size (0.25- to 1-mm [0.01- to 0.04-in.]) puncture
The construction procedures are too exacting to
holes and a few scratches ranging from 3 to 4
be realistically constructed in the field, especially
mm (0.12 to 0.16 in.) in width, 100 to 200 mm
expediently. It is too easy to have the bottom mem-
(4 to 8 in.) in length.
brane torn when compacting or finish-grading the
fill material. The ends of the MESL are also very
RUFCO 2010B. The membrane looked as good
difficult to construct. The troops also voiced con-
as new, with minimal scratches, no noticeable
cern over having to back up their dump trucks to
depressions, and no puncture holes.
dump gravel on the geotextile.
DURA-SKRIM 12 BBR. There were a few barely