Using this methodology for the 1992 calendar
Transfer of information is being achieved
year, it is estimated that roughly 19 million cubic
through the publication of technical reports, pa-
meters of ready-mixed concrete were placed in
pers, and articles in professional journals, news-
conditions where freezing conditions exist (ap-
letters, and other engineering publications.
proximately 10% of the U.S. total ready-mixed
WRG has integrated the laboratory results and
concrete). It is assumed from industry knowledge
experience gained from this project into its tech-
that only a small portion of this concrete was
placed in environments that are heated for rea-
Six publications were produced from this
sons other than providing adequate working/cur-
project (see the first six references in this report's
ing conditions. It is further estimated from com-
"Literature cited" section).
pany data that accelerators (both chloride and
nonchloride) would have been used to treat any-
where from two to four million cubic meters of
this total to provide accelerated set and strength
development as well as some measure of freeze
No comprehensive study of the market poten-
tial for freeze protection admixtures (also called
Based on these data and these assumptions,
antifreeze admixtures) has been carried out, but
the statistics shown in Table 21 are derived. No
several pieces of information can be used to make
work has been done as part of this project to sur-
a convincing case that a substantial market does
vey the market and determine the amounts of
exist. More detailed analysis is clearly required to
money being spent on freeze protection. Previous
more accurately define the opportunity for these
estimates of 0 million per year for freeze pro-
kinds of admixtures.
tection have been published. The magnitude of
To obtain an estimate of the current amount
this number matches well with the magnitude of
of concrete construction taking place under con-
the numbers presented in Table 21 (0 million
ditions that warrant freeze protection, monthly
for current practice potential market using freeze-
cement shipments on a state-by-state basis were
matched with monthly average daily tempera-
ture data for the major markets within each state.
Economic viability of new admixtures
Assumptions were then made concerning aver-
It is the opinion of the industry partner in
age amounts of cement per cubic meter of con-
this project that the products developed through
this CPAR project definitely represent a posi-
goes to ready-mixed concrete construction.
tive advancement in the development of freeze-
Table 21. Market estimate.
Freeze protection available and potential market
1. Available market is defined as the amount of concrete where admixtures are already being used
to deliver some degree of freeze protection.
2. Average price of .81/m3 (to the concrete producer) for admixtures currently used in marginal
freeze protection environments is assumed (dominated by inexpensive calcium chloride).
3. Current practice potential market merely assumes that all of the concrete currently protected
from freezing through external or internal heating insulation could make use of an admixture to
provide freeze protection.
4. Average price of /m3 is assumed for freeze protection of more than just a marginal nature.
5. Future practice potential market assumes that the availability of reliable freeze protection
technology would make concrete construction during subfreezing weather more easily accom-
plished than it is now. The rate at which concrete is used where average daily temperatures are
between 4C and 16C was applied for the amount of time that average daily temperatures are
below 4C to determine this potential. (This assumption resulted in a 90% increase versus
current cement usage in freezing conditions.)