7.5 Department of Defense
9.0 LITERATURE CITED
Aviation has been the nation's first line of defense
Aerometrics (1997) ADA-100 Icing Probe. Product bro-
for 50 years. Each of the military services operates a
fleet of aircraft best suited to their mission requirements.
Ahmed, M., and R. Brown (1995) Results from the
Only the Army, however, directly addresses cold-
freezing rain global climatology. Unpublished internal
weather problems because of its close association with
report, U.K. Meteorological Office.
winter weather conditions on and near the ground. The
AHS (1995) Tape transcription of International Icing
Army's Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab-
Symposium '95 Workshop, American Helicopter Soci-
oratory has taken the DoD lead in developing remote-
sensing systems for avoiding aircraft icing conditions.
Anderson, C., and D. Carbaugh (1993) Flight crew
Working hand in hand with NASA and the FAA,
interface aspects of forward-looking airborne windshear
CRREL is assisting in the management and develop-
detection systems. NASA Contractor Report 191437.
ment of icing avoidance capabilities to improve mili-
Angevine, W., and W. Ecklund (1994) Errors in radio
acoustic sounding of temperature. Journal of Atmo-
spheric and Oceanic Technology, 11: 837842.
Askne, J., G. Elgered, H. Nordius, G. Skoog, E. Win-
berg, A. Hagard, E. Andersson, N. Gustafsson, J. Svens-
Two tasks are involved in the implementation of a
son, and I. Carlsson (1987) The ONSAM Experiment:
remote-sensing ice-avoidance capability for aviation.
Remote sensing techniques for vertical sounding of the
The first is the development of a coherent and cooper-
atmosphere. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Tech-
ative research and development plan, led by the federal
nology, 4: 180190.
government but coordinated with industry and univer-
Atlas, D. (1954) The estimation of cloud parameters by
sities. The second is development of requirements,
radar. Journal of Meteorology, 11: 309317.
either voluntary or mandated, by the FAA to place
Auld, H. (1989) Airframe icing: Some classification
remote-sensing systems at airports or aboard aircraft,
problems. Canadian Aeronautics and Space Journal,
as is now common with weather-avoidance radar and
wind shear alert, collision-avoidance, and terrain-avoid-
AVEMCO (1983) Ice: As unwelcome a sight as there
is. AVEMCO Pilot Bulletin, Flying Safety Update No.
Research and development must be led by the federal
government. The government is mandated the respon-
Battan, L. (1962) Radar Meteorology. Chicago, Illinois:
sibility of enforcing aviation safety, and it has the pub-
University of Chicago Press.
lic trust. Development of icing avoidance capability
Battan, L. (1973) Radar Observation of the Atmosphere.
with onboard remote sensors is a high-risk venture that
Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press.
is not likely to be undertaken by industry. In addition,
Baum, R., and T. Seymour (1980) In-flight evaluation
the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and
of a severe weather avoidance system for aircraft
Security requires that the government take a leadership
Dynamics Laboratory, Air Force Wright Aeronautical
role in improving aviation safety. Weather, including
Labs, WrightPatterson Air Force Base, AFWAL-TR-
icing, is related to roughly 27% of all general aviation
accidents and 33% of all commercial aviation accidents.
Baumgardner, D. (1983) An analysis and comparison
In response to accidents, the FAA Inflight Aircraft Icing
of five water droplet measuring instruments. Journal of
Plan was developed. The NASA Aviation Safety Pro-
Climate and Applied Meteorology, 22: 891910.
gram was also implemented in response to the report
Baumgardner, D., B. Baker, and K. Weaver (1993) A
of the White House Commission on Aviation Safety.
technique for the measurement of cloud structure on
The Department of Defense is responding to a need to
centimeter scales. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic
improve military safety and readiness.
Technology, August, 10: 557-565.
The result is a need for federal leadership and coor-
Beheim, M. (1979) Executive summary of Aircraft Icing
dination in the development and implementation of a
Specialists Workshop. In Proceedings of Aircraft Icing,
capability for remotely detecting and avoiding in-flight
Cleveland, Ohio, 19-21 July 1978, NASA Conference
icing conditions. In response, NASA, the FAA, and
Publication 2086, FAA-RD-78-109, p. 116.
Benayahu, Y., A. Ben-David, S. Fastig, and A. Cohen
the need and encourage the development of a remote-
(1995) Cloud-droplet-size distribution from lidar multiple-
sensing capability. This report supports that goal.
scattering measurements. Applied Optics, 34(9): 1569