Figure 6. Comparison of laboratory shear testing before and after field exposure. Error bars indicate the range of six
replicate samples, and the height of each column is the measured mean value. Orange data represent materials that exhibited
no statistically significant difference between the average before- and after-exposure values. Purple data were significantly
different after exposure at the 95% confidence interval.
Of the standard Corps paints we tested, only the V-103c system has a substantially low affinity for ice adhesion, i.e., in
the same range as the icephobic materials that we tested. Also, our average adhesion test value for V-103c increased only
slightly after the six-month-long field exposure. The test results indicate that using a commercial icephobic topcoat on other
Corps paints could be of benefit by reducing the effort required to remove ice. Some of the icephobics that we tested have
one-half to one-third the ice adhesion strength of bare metal. Teflon and UHMW polyethylene as cladding materials are even
better in this regard. Although other methods of removal will still be required, icephobics may reduce the energy, man-hours,
and cost required to deice Corps structures. It was evident from the after-exposure condition survey and the ice adhesion
testing results that most of the coatings held up well during the six-month field trial, and that longer exposure is warranted to
obtain further performance delineation between these systems.
Anderson, G.P, S.J. Bennet, and K.L. DeVries (1977) Analysis and Testing of Adhesive Bonds. New York: Academic
Haehnel, R.B. (2002) Evaluation of coatings for icing control at hydraulic structures. U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and
Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, New Hampshire, Ice Engineering Information Exchange Bulletin, Number 33, January
Haehnel, R.B., and N.D. Mulherin (1998) The bond strength of an icesolid interface loaded in shear. Ice in Surface
Waters, Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Ice, 2731 July 1998, Potsdam, New York. Rotterdam:
Balkema Press, p. 597604.
Haynes, F.D., R.B. Haehnel, and L.J. Zabilansky (1993) Icing problems at Corps projects. Waterways Experiment
Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi, Technical Report REMR-HY-10.