3. Aside from permeability, the pressure-saturation relation for fluids in porous media is
the most critical physical function for modeling the transport of fluids in variably saturated
media. It has yet to be resolved entirely how temperature affects this relationship. A satis-
factory understanding of the effect of temperature on soil retention curves for water and
other liquids must be developed.
4. A co-ordinated research effort to determine the temperature effects on the physics of
insoluble and sparingly soluble nonaqueous phase liquids in porous media should be pur-
5. In frozen ground, the movement of solutes and water in response to osmotic and
thermal gradients may be significant. Relations by which the transport of water, solutes,
and nonaqueous phase liquids in response to thermal and osmotic gradients may be esti-
mated reliably should be derived or developed.
A surprising number of cold-regions areas in the northern hemisphere are contaminat-
ed. There is a need to incorporate the fundamental physical, chemical, and hydrological
processes that govern contaminant hydrology into the numerical models that are used to
assist in the remediation of these sites. It is hoped this document assists in this process.
The physical and chemical processes that determine the fate of contaminants in cold
regions are just now being understood comprehensively. As with any new area of under-
standing, this is a challenging process, but it is also an exciting area at the limits of our
understanding of the dynamic behavior of complex, heterogeneous materials.
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