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water levels at the downstream boundary were assumed
to be the same as those during the January 1977 ice
Beltaos, S. (1993a) Flow through breakup jams. In
jam, which extended from RM 193.8 of the Mississippi
Proceedings, 11th Canadian hydrotechnical
River to upstream of the boom locations. The ice and
Conference, Fredericton, N.B., June, pp. 643652.
water discharges of the January 1977 ice jam were also
Beltaos, S. (1993b) Numerical computation of river ice
used. These simulations showed that the boom could
jams. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 20(1):
be effective at both locations. In the second group of
simulations, an initial open water condition, with a low
river discharge of 566 m3/s, was assumed. The ice
Beltaos, S., and J. Wong (1986) Downstream transition
of river ice jams. Journal of Hydraulics Engineering,
booms were assumed to be 100% effective, i.e., the
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limiting conditions for ice accumulation behind the
Connor, J.J., and C.A. Brebbia (1978) Finite Element
boom were not imposed. These simulations showed that
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the lower downstream water levels of the open water
Daly, S.F., and K.D. Axelson (1990) Stability of
condition resulted in partial grounding of ice in the
floating and submerged blocks. IAHR Journal of
vicinity of the booms. The boom loads were not uniform
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across the width, and leveled off as the ice cover
Flato, G., and R. Gerard (1986) Calculation of ice
extended upstream. The ice loads on the booms reached
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very high values, ranging from 40 to 50 kN/m. Since
the results of the second group of simulations showed
Gingold, R.A., and J.J. Monaghan (1977) Smoothed
that the flow velocity could exceed the entrainment
particle hydrodynamics: Theory and application to non-
velocity, an additional simulation was made with a boom
oriented at an angle of 45o to the main flow direction.
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This reduced the normal velocity of ice floes approaching
zone rheology: Comparison of results from continuum-
the boom, and the ice was stopped at the boom. However,
plastic models and discrete-particle simulations. Journal
as the ice accumulation thickened behind the boom, the
of Geophysical Research, 102(6): 12,64712,661.
critical undercover erosion velocity was exceeded and
Hibler, W.D. (1979) A dynamic thermodynamic sea ice
the cover progression was halted.
model. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 9(4): 815
Before the present study, ice retention behind booms
was considered to be marginally possible, based on
existing critical water velocity and Froude number
Kawai T., F. Hara, S. Masaki, A. Nishihata, and H.
Saeki (1997) Experimental study on the process of ice
criteria. The one-dimensional steady-state ice jam model
jam development. In 9th Workshop on River Ice, pp.
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possible, but the model was unable to address dynamic
Lal, A.M.W., and H.T. Shen (1991) A numerical
processes. During problem ice years on the middle
method for simulating dynamic river ice transport.
Mississippi River, the average Missouri River discharge
is about 850 m3/s (30,000 ft3/s). Two-dimensional
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simulations at the two most favorable sites (RM 8.2
Larsen, P. (1975) Notes on stability of floating ice
and 16) carried out here found that ice retention behind
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booms is unfeasible even at a much lower discharge of
566 m3/s (20,000 ft3/s), unless a specially designed
Hanover, New Hampshire.
Latyshenkov, A.M. (1946) A study of protective
boom with high ice retention capacity can be developed.
booms. Gidrotechnicheskiye Stroitel'stro (in Russian),
The two-dimensional dynamic ice transport model
proved to be a valuable tool for addressing important
Lu, S., H.T. Shen, and R.D. Crissman (1999)
design issues that could not be answered by
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River. Journal of Cold Regions Engineering, ASCE,
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