αh

εij

Generalized eddy viscosity coefficients

εij

Strain rate tensor

φ

Internal friction angle of ice

φB

Boundary friction angle

γ2

Wind drag coefficient

η

Water surface elevation

η′

Elevation of the undersurface of the ice layer

λ

Seepage flow coefficient

Nonlinear viscosity coefficient in constitutive law

θa

Angle between the wind direction and the *x*-axis

ρ

Water density

ρa

Air density

ρi

Ice density

σ

Internal ice stress

τax, τay

Components of wind drag on ice

→

τb

Shear stresses on the riverbed

τix, τiy

Components of seepage flow water drag on ice

→

τs

Shear stresses at the icewater or airwater interface

τwx, τwy

Components of lower-layer-flow water drag on ice

Flow area affected by the bed resistance

Flow area affected by the ice resistance

Wind on ice drag coefficient

Bed resistance coefficient

Water on ice drag coefficient

→

Wind drag on ice

Ice cohesive force

Frictional force between ice and the solid boundary

Normal ice force against the solid boundary

→

Water drag on ice

Gravitational force attributable to water surface slope

Components of gravitational force attributable to water surface slope

Water depth below the reference level

Total water depth

Water depth beneath the ice layer

Net water depth in the ice layer

Dimensionless empirical coefficient for seepage flow formula

Hydraulic conveyance

Conveyance of flow carried by ice

Conveyance of the lower water layer

Conveyance of seepage flow

Total conveyance of flow

Total conveyance of flow in the upper ice layer

Ice mass per unit area

Average surface area per volume of ice

Manning's coefficient of river bed

Manning's coefficient of ice

Ice concentration

Ice porosity

Internal ice pressure term in the constitutive law