High-explosive projectiles that function properly
Origin and environmental significance of large-scale
appear to leave little residue in the surface soil. RDX
patterned ground. U.S. Army Cold Regions Research
and HMX, which leave low but detectable residues,
and Engineering Laboratory, Research Report 159.
appear to leave more residue than TNT. The reason for
Dingman, S.L., H.R. Samide, D.L. Saboe, M.J.
the difference in residue levels between the nitramine
Lynch, and C.W. Slaughter (1971) Hydrologic
(RDX and HMX) and nitroaromatic (TNT) explosives
is unknown but may be due to degree of conversion in
Alaska. U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and
the detonation, water solubility differences, or
Engineering Laboratory, Research Report 262.
environmental transformation pathways.
Dube, P., G. Ampleman, S. Thiboutot, A. Gagnon,
The median concentrations for RDX and TNT we
and A. Marois (1999) Characterization of potentially
detected in soils were only 0.021 and 0.004 g/g,
explosives-contaminated sites at CFB Gagetown, 14
respectively. These low concentrations of explosives
Wing Greenwood and CFAD Bedford. Defence
would have been non-detects using Method 8330, but
Research Establishment, Valcartier, Quebec, DREV-
were detectable using Method 8095. Also, field
colorimetric procedures would not detect these low
Gilbert, R.O. (1987) Statistical Methods for
concentrations; rather, a field-portable gas
Environmental Pollution Monitoring
. New York: Van
chromatograph would be needed. Colorimetric field
analysis of soil from the Washington Range revealed a
Gould, L.P., J.L. Peard, R.C. Severson, H.T.
problem with the commercial (EnSys) version of
Shacklette, M.L. Tompkins, K.C. Stewart, and P.H.
Method 8515. Elemental sulfur and sulfides yield a false
Briggs (1984) Chemical analyses of soils and other
positive for TNT with the EnSys reagent (tetrabutyl
surficial materials, Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey,
ammonium hydroxide) but not with the reagents
Open-File Report 84-423.
(potassium hydroxide and sodium sulfite) originally
Gould, L.P., R.C. Severson, and H.T. Shacklette
recommended by Jenkins (1990).
(1988) Element concentrations in soils and other
Low-order detonations, where only part of the high-
surficial materials of Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey
explosive filler detonated leaving solid explosive
Professional Paper 1458.
Holmes, G.W., and W.S. Benninghoff (1957) Terrain
highest soil concentrations observed. On the
study of the army test area, Fort Greely, Alaska. USGS
Washington Range, the explosives did not appear to be
Military Geology Branch.
migrating downward, probably because soils were
Jenkins, T.F. (1990) Development of a simplified field
frozen most of the year.
method for the determination of TNT in soil. U.S. Army
NG and 2,4-DNT residues from propellants were
Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory,
found in the soil at the Lampkin Range firing point.
Special Report 90-38.
Washington Range firing points will be sampled in the
Jenkins, T.F., M.E. Walsh, P.G. Thorne, S. Thiboutot,
G. Ampleman, T.A. Ranney, and C.L. Grant (1997)
The greatest potential threat of contamination of
Assessment of sampling error associated with collection
and analysis of soil samples at a firing range
order detonations or heavily used firing points located
contaminated with HMX. U.S. Army Cold Regions
Research and Engineering Laboratory, Special Report
Jenkins, T.F., M.E. Walsh, P.G. Thorne, P.H.
Miyares, T.A. Ranney, C.L. Grant, and J. Esparza
(1998) Site characterization for explosives
Ampleman, G., S. Thiboutot, and S. Desilets (2000)
U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering
CFB Chilliwack and CFAD Rocky Point. In Proceeding
Laboratory, Special Report 98-9.
of the Fifth International Symposium and Exhibition
Jenkins, T.F., J.C. Pennington, T.A. Ranney, T.E.
on Environmental Contamination in Central and
Berry Jr., P.H. Miyares, M.E. Walsh, A.D. Hewitt,
Eastern Europe, Prague, Czech Republic, September.
N.M. Perron, L.V. Parker, C.A. Hayes, and E.G.
Benson, C.S. (1972) Physical properties of the snow
Wahlgren (2001) Characterization of explosives
cover in the Fort Greely Area, Alaska. U.S. Army Cold
contamination at military firing ranges. U.S. Army
Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Special
Engineer Research and Development Center, Cold
Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory,
Church, R.E., T.L. Pw, and M.J. Andresen (1965)
Technical Report ERDC TR-01-5.