Figure 6. Tank used as a target during TOW missile tests. Six discrete samples
were collected adjacent to the tank, then a series of composite samples were
collected radially around the tank out to 50 m at 5-m intervals.
concentrations of some metals were elevated (Table 7).
composite samples collected from concentric circles 5-
Also, most of the detections of cadmium and the only
m and 10-m distance from the crater center.
RDX was the only explosive detected (0.002 g/g)
detection of antimony (above detection limit) were in
soils collected adjacent to these tank targets. Metal
in the revetment (Table 8) and crater. It was detected at
concentrations in composite samples 10 m or greater
concentrations less than the method detection limit in
distance from tank target #2 were similar to naturally
the soils from the revetment floor, the crater rim, and
occurring concentrations (Gould et al. 1988).
10 m from the crater. The metals zinc, lead, copper,
chromium, and cadmium were detected at elevated
concentrations in the revetment floor (Table 9).
40-mm impact berm and firing point
(Sense and Destroy Armor) were conducted. The
SADARM is a 155-mm projectile that contains two
The final area sampled that was associated with a
submunitions. The submunitions descend on a parachute
specific event was the impact berm for a test of 40-mm
while sensors (active and passive millimeter wave radar
grenades. In November 1998, 1800 rounds were fired
and infrared) scan for targets. Once a target is detected,
into a berm on the Lampkin Range (Fig. 1b). The berm
an "explosively formed" penetrator is propelled through
was located in a now-active channel of the river
the top of the target.
downstream from an area with several targets (Fig. 9).
Because SADARM is still under development, little
The 40-mm rounds contain RDX as the explosive filler
information is available about its components. The
(Table 10). We also sampled the firing point from which
penetrator is made of the heavy metal tantalum.
these rounds were fired (Fig. 10). The propellant for
We located a revetment (Fig. 8) that concealed one
this type of round is double-based (contains
of the target tanks during the tests. We collected one
nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin).
composite sample along the wall of the revetment and
Composite samples from the 40-mm impact berm
one from the floor of the revetment. Each composite
were formed by collecting surface and subsurface soils
sample was formed by taking a surface soil sample at
at 1-m intervals along the face of the berm (Fig. 9).
about 1-m intervals in a line along the wall and from an
Method 8510 indicated the presence of nitramines and/
approximate 1-m 1-m grid along the floor. Near the
or nitrate esters.
As determined by GC-ECD (Fig. 11), concen-
revetment, we found a crater from which we collected
trations of RDX ranged from 0.004 to 0.17 g/g in the
surface soils from the bottom and rim and two