verify that short-term goals are maintained.
telemetry, aerial survey, habitat, and physi-
Monitoring also would be conducted at
cal landform data into a geographical infor-
years 10, 15, and 20 to ensure that remedial
mation system (GIS) database. Perform GIS
action objectives continue to be maintained.
management every year for the first 8 years,
Perform limited aerial surveys and ground
starting in 1999, and then during years 10,
truthing during years 9 to 20 to evaluate
15, and 20.
waterfowl mortality, physical habitat changes,
Maintain institutional controls, including
and vegetation rebound.
the restrictions governing site access, con-
Perform aerial photography every other
struction, and road maintenance and the
year for 10 years (beginning in 1999) to mon-
required training for personnel who work at
itor habitat changes resulting from remedial
OU-C source areas, as long as hazardous
actions. Changes in drainage, topography,
substances, and unexploded ordnance haz-
and vegetation would be evaluated.
ards, exist at OU-C.
Perform habitat mapping once every 4 years
for 20 years to evaluate impacts to habitat as
a result of remedial actions, as well as to
The selected remedy is protective of human
observe physical habitat changes and vege-
health and the environment, complies with Fed-
tation rebound after pumping is discontinued.
eral and state requirements that are legally appli-
Perform limited hazing (only as a contin-
cable or relevant and appropriate to the remedial
gency) during first 5 years starting in 1999 if
action, and is cost-effective. The remedy uses per-
incidental hazing from pumping operations
manent solutions and alternative treatment tech-
and other fieldwork activities does not deter
nologies to the maximum extent practicable, and
satisfies the statutory preference for remedies
After remedial action objectives are achieved
that employ treatment that reduces toxicity,
and pumping is discontinued, apply cap-
mobility, or volume as a principal element.
and-fill material in ponded areas that did not
Because the remedy will result in hazardous
drain and dry sufficiently to enable the
substances that present a substantial ecological
white phosphorus to sublime and oxidize.
risk remaining on site, a review will be conducted
Cap-and-fill material placement is expected
within 5 years after commencement of the reme-
to occur in year 5 (2003).
dial action to ensure that the remedy continues to
Monitor cap and fill material integrity every
provide adequate protection of human health
year for 4 years after the material is placed,
and the environment. Review will continue for 5-
and also at years 10, 15, and 20.
year increments until the RAOs are complete.
Incorporate white phosphorus sampling,
port at sites in ponds and in tidal creeks linking
Bigl, S.R., D.E. Lawson, and L.E. Hunter (1997)
ponds to the Eagle River or to Knik Arm. Semi-
Sediment accumulation at Eagle River Flats, Fort
diurnal flooding during high spring tidal events
Richardson, Alaska. In Proceedings, Cook Inlet
inundates ponds and mudflats and drives surface
Symposium, Anchorage, Alaska, p. 3.
hydrology. Flooding events have a higher fre-
Eagle River Flats is an 865-ha salt marsh and a
quency than predicted (from Anchorage tide
U.S. Army artillery range in upper Cook Inlet,
data) during periods of peak glacial meltwater
where ingestion of white phosphorus (WP) from
production. We measured sediment accumula-
tion rates with various techniques in ponds and
ity in bottom-feeding waterfowl. Physical sys-
mudflats between 1992 and 1996. The primary
tems were studied as part of the site characteriza-
sediment source is the tides from Knik Arm and
tion to monitor their possible effects on proposed
sediment accumulation rates in ponds averaged 5
remediation efforts and to evaluate the potential
to 15 mm/yr. Higher accumulation rates (20 to 30
for natural remediation through burial. We docu-
mm/yr) were observed on the mudflats near
mented the duration and depth of tidal inunda-
sources (Knik Arm coastal zone, Eagle River, tidal
tion, rivertidal interactions, and sediment trans-