vania: American Society of Testing and Materials.
Civil Engineering (1991) Antifreeze for your con-
A new low-temperature concreting technology
crete. Civil Engineering, December 1991, p. 10.
was explored with the result that a prototype
Dawson, J.L. and P.E. Langford (1988) The elec-
freezing-temperature-protection admixture has
trochemistry of steel corrosion in concrete com-
been developed. The resulting EY-11 prototype
pared to its response in pore solution. In The Use
affords superior low-temperature protection com-
of Synthetic Environments for Corrosion Testing
pared to existing admixtures and provides good
(P.S. Francis and T.S. Lee, Eds.), ASTM STP 970.
freezethaw durability at high dosages. These are
American Society of Testing and Materials, p.
important qualities. However, EY-11 needs fur-
ther development to improve its ability to accel-
Gavrish, Y.E., N.S. Khvorostovskya, and V.G.
erate setting and enhance strength at above-freez-
Serbin (1974) Thermal behavior of concrete slab
ing temperatures in order to fit into current ASTM
on frozen ground bed. In The Second International
(C 494) testing guidelines for concrete admixtures.
Symposium on Winter Concreting, Vol. 1. Moscow:
It is believed necessary and in the best interests of
Stroyizdat, p. 2333. Available as CRREL Draft
Master Builders to develop an admixture that per-
forms well at both above- and below-freezing tem-
Horrigan, T. (1995) Unpublished chart, Research
peratures. Consequently, MB has chosen not to
and Engineering Directorate, CRREL, Hanover,
market EY-11 until improvements can be made,
particularly those of setting and early strength, at
Korhonen, C.J. (1990) Antifreeze admixtures for
temperatures above freezing.
cold weather concreting: A literature review. USA
Cold Regions Research and Engineering Labora-
tory, Special Report 90-32.
Nmai, C.K., M.A. Bury, and H. Farzam (1994)
Corrosion evaluation of a sodium thiocyanate-
ACI (1988) Cold Weather Concreting. ACI 306-88.
based admixture. Concrete International, April.
Detroit, Michigan: American Concrete Institute.
Sagues, A.A. (1987) Corrosion measurements of
Aguilar, A., A.A. Sagues, and R.G. Powers (1990)
reinforcing steel in concrete exposed to various
Corrosion measurements of reinforcing steel in
aqueous environments. In Corrosion of Metals in
partially submerged concrete slabs. In Corrosion
Concrete, Proceedings of the CORROSION/87 Sym-
Rates of Steel in Concrete (N.S. Berke, V. Chalker,
posium on Corrosion of Metals in Concrete, Univer-
and D. Whiting, Eds.), ASTM STP 1065. Philadel-
sity of South Florida. NACE Unit Committee T-
phia, Pennsylvania: American Society of Testing
3K, p. 1324.
and Materials, p. 6685.
Tourney, P. and N. Berke (1993) A call for stan-
ASTM Committee G-1.14 (1995) Corrosion of Re-
dardized tests for corrosion inhibitors. Concrete
inforcing Steel: Discussions. Philadelphia, Pennsyl-
International, 15: 5762.