these means may be time-consuming or expensive.
work on making either unit able to transmit warn-
The continuing evolution of computer systems re-
ing through a DCP, dedicated phone line, cellular
quires that any system developed today for the
phone, or radio would make each an excellent
transmission, display, evaluation, and storage of
device for providing warning of ice movement.
data be fluid enough to be adaptable in the future
4. Aerial photography and videography are
so that users are not required to learn a new pro-
used in several Districts, but can require a great
gram every few years.
deal of time to transfer information to a map. Use
of aerial videography and photography could be
made much more attractive by use of image pro-
cessing software that could automate mapping of
ice coverage and ice types. The software must be
The results of the survey, combined with an in-
able to translate each image pixel to a real-world
vestigation and evaluation of ice data collection
coordinate as well, so that results could be mapped
instrumentation and data transmission and stor-
to a CADD or GIS system. Development of such
age systems, provides some idea of the current
software should be pursued. Unless a digital cam-
era were used, photographs would need to be
be used to direct future research. The authors rec-
scanned after being printed in order to get into a
ommend the following:
1. Remote monitoring of ice parameters in
5. The ability to track position concurrently with
USACE Districts is still in the early stages of de-
image procurement or with portable instruments
velopment. A few parameters, such as stage and
will be necessary in the future, as observations will
temperature, use equipment that appears ad-
require a spatial attribute to be used with a GIS
equate for present needs. Most other ice-related
system. GPS units are currently the best device
observations are made manually but can provide
available for tracking position, and development
excellent information. Continued development of
of portable instruments, whether for measuring
remote monitoring instruments that lessen the
ice thickness, ice coverage, etc., should take into
dependence on field observers should be pursued.
account using GPS units for obtaining position.
While emphasis should be given to developing in-
As GPS has many uses beyond ice instrumenta-
strumentation that benefits the greatest number
tion, other USACE labs could be consulted in de-
of users, other technologies that appear promis-
veloping the proper instrument interface.
ing and are low-cost should not be overlooked.
6. The use of existing inexpensive devices not
2. Although no one system will work for all
typically used for ice measurements, such as a ra-
types of ice, radar systems appear the most prom-
dar gun or depth finder, should be briefly explored
ising for remote measurement of ice thickness. One
in the laboratory for accuracy and feasibility be-
aspect of the radar systems that needs further work
fore initiating further study of their potential use.
before field implementation is signal processing.
The adaptation of existing low-cost devices should
The final output from a radar system needs to be
be highly encouraged when possible. More re-
in a digital format that is user-readable, rather than
search and brainstorming is needed in investigat-
the graphical output currently used, which is very
ing existing devices that could be adapted for mea-
difficult to interpret for most people. The radar
suring ice parameters
system that appears best suited for field use is the
7. Information, once collected, needs to be
MMW FMCW radar, as it has demonstrated abili-
stored in a central repository to be of future value.
ties to measure parameters other than ice thick-
It is recommended that the Water Control Section
ness. A compact, self-contained unit with digital
of each District maintain ice records, as they main-
readout that can be operated permanently or aeri-
tain all other hydrologic information. The use of
ally is feasible and should be developed. Such a
HECDSS should be encouraged for data storage.
unit, if permanently installed, could also be used
Development of HECDSS to handle spatially and
for measuring stage year-round.
temporally attributed data should be pursued. The
3. The same radar, with slight modification, has
development of a GIS-based interface for query-
also been used to measure ice velocity, which
ing and displaying data should be continued.
would also make it suitable for detecting ice mo-
8. There are a number of existing and promis-
tion. Additionally, the ice motion detector devel-
ing technologies that may prove useful for moni-
oped at CRREL (Zufelt 1993) is an instrument that
toring ice in the future, given enough resources
has been field-proven and is low-cost. Additional