the need for technological advance will be rec-
tory to 1945. In The Soviet Maritime Arctic (L.W.
Brigham, Ed.). Woods Hole Oceanographic Insti-
tution. Annapolis, Maryland: U.S. Naval Institute
Press, p. 1132.
Barr, W . and E.A. Wilson (1985) The shipping cri-
sis in the Soviet Eastern Arctic and the close of the
ANSR (1991) Regulations for Navigation on the Sea-
1983 navigation season. Arctic, 38(1): 117.
ways of the Northern Sea Route (A.P. Suchorukov,
Batskikh, Yu.M. and V.V. Mikhailichenko (1993)
Ed.). Moscow: Administration for the Northern
The development of navigation along the Northern
Sea Route. Presented at the 12th International Con-
Arctic News-Record (1994a) North Pole cruises.
ference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic
Conditions (POAC), 1720 August, Hamburg, Germany.
Arctic News-Record (1994b) Transportation: Move
Berenyl, I., O. Kovalenko and B. Bozsoki (1994)
in arctic shipping. 10.3(3): 5.
CIS and the Black Sea. Seatrade Review, May.
Arikaynen, A.I. (1991) Management of the North-
Berenyl, I., S. Thomas and M. Bond (1992). Mari-
ern Sea Route: Stages and problems of develop-
time industries of the former Soviet Union. Seatrade
ment. In The Soviet Maritime Arctic (L.W. Brigham,
Ed.). Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
Brekke, B. and P.E. Fjeld (Eds.) (1991) Pilot Project
Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, p.
1B: Environmental factors. In The Northern Sea Route
Project: Pilot Studies Report (W. streng and A.
Armstrong, T. (1958) The Russians in the Arctic.
Jrgensen-Dahl, Eds.). Lysaker, Norway: Fridtjof
Aspects of Soviet Exploration and Exploitation of the
Nansen Institute, p. 126179.
Far North, 19371957. Fair Lawn, New Jersey: Es-
Brigham, L.W . (1985) New developments in So-
viet nuclear Arctic ships. U.S. Naval Institute Pro-
Armstrong, T. (1972) The Northern Sea Route in
ceedings, 111(12): 131133.
196870. Inter-Nord, 118: 118120.
Brigham, L.W . (Ed.) (1991) The Soviet Maritime Arc-
Armstrong, T. (1978) Icebreaker voyage to the
tic. Cambridge: Scott Polar Research Institute, and
North Pole, 1977. Polar Record, 19(118): 6768.
London: Belhaven Press.
Armstrong, T. (1984) The Northern Sea Route, 1983.
Brigham, L.W . (1993) The Russians open the Arc-
Polar Record, 22(137): 173182.
tic for business. U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings,
Armstrong, T. (1988) Soviet proposals for the Arc-
January, 119(1): 9293.
tic: A policy declaration by Mr. Gorbachev. Polar
Brigham, L.W . (1995) Arctic rendezvous. U.S. Na-
Record, 24(144): 6869.
val Institute Proceedings, January.
Armstrong, T. (1989) The Northern Sea Route, 1988.
Brigham, L.W . and R.P. Voelker (1985) Ice navi-
Polar Record, 25(154): 247249.
gation studies in the Alaskan Arctic using Polar-
Armstrong, T. (1990) The Northern Sea Route. Po-
class icebreakers. In Proceedings of the Ocean Engi-
lar Record, 26(157): 127129.
neering and the Environment--Oceans '85 Conference,
Armstrong, T. (1991) The Northern Sea Route, 1990.
1114 November, San Diego, California, vol. 1, p. 441
Polar Record, 27(161): 136138.
Armstrong, T. (1992a) A history of the Northern
Brower, W .A. Jr., R.G. Baldwin, C.N. Williams,
Sea Route. International Challenges, 12(1): 3442.
Jr., J.L. Wise, and L.D. Leslie (1988) Climatic Atlas
Armstrong, T. (1992b) The Northern Sea Route,
of the Outer Continental Shelf Waters and Coastal Re-
1991. Polar Record, 28(166): 239-240.
gions of Alaska; vol. I, Gulf of Alaska, vol. II, Bering
Armstrong, T. (1993) The Northern Sea Route, 1992.
Sea, vol. III, ChukchiBeaufort Sea. National Cli-
Polar Record, 29(1): 245.
mate Data Center; National Environmental Satel-
Arpiainen, P. (1994) The Northern Sea Route--A
lite, Data, and Information Service; National Oce-
traffic potential study. Finnyards Ltd.
anic Atmospheric Administration; and Arctic
Barnett, D. (1991) Sea ice distribution in the Soviet
Environmental Information and Data Center. An-
Arctic. In The Soviet Maritime Arctic (L.W. Brigham,
chorage: University of Alaska.
Ed.). Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. An-
Butler, W . (1991) The legal regime of the Soviet
napolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, p. 4762.
Arctic marine areas. In The Soviet Maritime Arctic
Barr, W . (1978) The voyage of the Sibiryakov, 1932.
(L.W. Brigham, Ed.). Woods Hole Oceanographic
Polar Record, 19(120): 253-266.
Institution. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute
Barr, W. (1991) The Arctic Ocean in Russian his-
Press, p. 215234.