Structure analysis of ice accreted around a polypro-
pylene life line showed the largest ice crystals observed
aboard the cutter. Small, rounded, randomly oriented
Ackley, S. (1985) Sea spray icing: A review of current
crystals dominated the ice mass immediately around
models. In Proceedings, 1985 U.S. Navy Symposium
the wire. Thereafter, long crystals grew radially to the
on Arctic/Cold Weather Operations of Surface Ships.
outer edge of the elongated ice mass. The saline icicle
Washington, D.C.: Deputy Chief of Naval Operations
externally resembles a freshwater icicle, as described
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by Laudise and Barns (1979), and the internal structure
Ackley, S., and K. Itagaki (1974) Crystal structure of
appears similar to the crystal structure in freshwater
a natural freezing rain accretion. Weather, 29(5): 189
glaze ice around hay stalks, where crystal growth is
perpendicular to and radially oriented around the stalk
Ahlmann, H., and F. Droessler (1949) Glacier ice crys-
(Ackley and Itagaki 1974). In the case of glaze, heat is
tal measurements, Kebnekajse, Sweden. Journal of Gla-
initially lost to the accretion surface, but eventually heat
ciology, 1(5): 268274.
flows into the atmosphere as ice thickness increases.
Borisenkov, Ye., and V. Panov (1972) Basic results
Crystal growth is thus promoted in the direction of cool-
and prospects of research on hydrometeorological con-
ing, down the temperature gradient, and towards the
ditions of shipboard icing. In Issledovaniye Fizicheskov
Prirody Obledeneniya Sudov, Leningrad. USA Cold
Saline icicles actively grew below the 5-in. gun hous-
Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Draft
ing. Externally, they exhibit several features of fresh-
Translation TL411, 1974, p. 130.
water icicles, including horizontal surface ribbing and
Brown, R., and P. Roebber (1985) The ice accretion
pendant drops (Geer 1981). Internally, they have fea-
problem in Canadian waters related to offshore energy
tures of freshwater icicles, and saline subaqueous sta-
and transportation. Canadian Atmospheric Environment
lactites (Weeks and Ackley 1982, Perovich et al. 1995).
Service, AES Report No. 85-13, Downsview, Ontario.
Crystal growth is radial away from and orthogonal to
Cox, G., and W. Weeks (1983) Equations for deter-
the long axis of the icicle, similar to some freshwater
mining the gas and brine volumes in sea-ice samples.
icicles (Laudise and Barns 1979). However, it is also
Journal of Glaciology, 29: 306316.
similar in some respects to stalactites that form under
Frankenstein, G., and R. Garner (1967) Equations
sources of cold, highly saline brine, such as thick, young
for determining the brine volume of sea ice from 0.5C
ice (Perovich et al. 1995). In the latter case, cold brine
to 22.9C. Journal of Glaciology, 6(48): 943944.
flows through the stalactites within tortuous channels
Gates, E., R. Narten, E. Lozowski, and L. Makkonen
up to several centimeters in diameter. The channel is
(1986) Marine icing and spongy ice. In Proceedings of
commonly frazil lined, with columnar crystals grow-
the IAHR Symposium on Ice, Iowa City, Iowa, vol. 2, p.
ing radially into the surrounding warmer water. The
icicle brine tubes on the cutter were surrounded by ice
Geer, I. (1981) The not-so-ordinary icicle. Weatherwise,
transitioning from frazil to elongated crystals that were
approaching columnar in appearance and also growing
Golubev, V. (1972) On the structure of ice formed dur-
radially. Processes that produce saline icicles have been
ing icing of ships (from the materials of expeditions
modeled (Makkonen 1988, Lozowski and Szilder, in
research). In Issledovaniye Fizicheskov Prirody
press), but detailed comparisons have not been made
Obledeneniya Sudov, Leningrad. USA, Cold Regions
between stalactite and saline icicle processes.
Research and Engineering Laboratory, Draft Transla-
Ice properties on the USCGC Midgett were gener-
tion TL411, 1974, p. 108116.
ally similar to those observed by the Soviets on trawl-
Gow, A. (1987) Restraints on thin section analysis of
ers. Salinity was generally lower on vertical surfaces
grain growth in unstrained polycrystalline ice. Journal
than on horizontal surfaces because of brine drainage.
de Physique, 48(3): 277281.
Ice density fell within the range of observations by the
Iwata, S. (1975) Ice accumulation on ships. In Contri-
Soviets, and was somewhat lower on vertical surfaces
butions, Arctic Oil and Gas: Problems and Possibili-
than on horizontal surfaces. Following this ice salinity
ties, 5th International Congress of the Fondation
pattern, the percentage of ice pores filled with brine in
Francaise d'etudes Nordiques, 25 May 1973, Le Havre,
the February event, and with one exception in the March
France (J. Malaurie, Ed.). Volume 12, p. 363386.
event, was greater on horizontal than on vertical surfaces
Jorgensen, T. (1982) Influence of ice accretion on
as calculated by the Cox and Weeks (1983) equations.
activity in the northern part of the Norwegian conti-