flow area, increasing under-ice water velocity, scouring bed sediments, and possibly shifting the path of the deepest flow. Ice
accumulations also may impinge flow against the channel sides to erode the banks (Fig. 3) (Ettema and Daly 2004). Neill
(1976) and Mercer and Cooper (1977) describe dynamic ice jam events causing local scour and re-suspension of sediment.
Newbury (1968) and Smith and Pearce (2002) also report substantial scour at frequent jam sites.
Figure 2. Vertical velocity profiles: Open water compared to smooth and rough ice cover
cases. (From Hains and Zabilansky 2004.)
Figure 3. Ice cover impinging flow against the channel sides to erode and destabilize
banks. (From Ettema and Daly 2004.)