related to incomplete coverage of the chemi-
cal because the same liquid volume was ap-
The series of experiments showed that the FBG
plied to all treatments and there were no
compound was effective in preventing frost on a
problems with solubility of the chemical
bentgrass turf used for greens. Frost was inhibited
during mixing with water.
under the following conditions of this study:
In the 7 September 1997 experiment, we
Application of FBG at concentrations of 10,
attributed the patchy tip burn on the sod
15, and 20% at a rate of 1629 L ha1 (174 gal.
treated with 20% FBG to purple leafspot dis-
acre1) six hours before frosting was consis-
ease and not to the FBG product.
tently effective in reducing the occurrence of
The technique developed in this study
frost on creeping bentgrass leaf surfaces.
proved to be a successful method for pro-
The gel ingredient appeared to cause some
ducing frost on herbaceous plants. This
leaf injury to the turf at the 20% FBG treat-
method may be used in future studies on
ment. At the time the symptoms were
plant characteristics and on plant tolerance
observed, the reason for this injury was not
to cold temperatures.
clear. The quantity of gel agent applied was
consistent across all FBG treatments, except
the control; therefore, we should have
observed the injury in all the FBG treat-
Beard, J.B. (1973) Turfgrass: Science and Culture.
ments. In subsequent conversations, the FBG
Prentice-Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
Company* stated that they had not noted
Bruneau, A.H., J.E. Watkins, and R.L. Branden-
this effect at customer sites or in related
burg (1992) Integrated pest management. In Turf-
studies at Clemson or Iowa State Universi-
grass (D.V. Waddington et al., Ed.). American
ties. Therefore, we are not sure what caused
Society of Agronomy Publication, Madison, Wis-
the leaf injury. This was one of our first ex-
periments with this product and the material
Eaton, R.A. (1988) Unique cold weather testing
may have been contaminated or misapplied.
facility. In Proceedings, 1st Test Technology Sympo-
sium, 2528 January 1988, Vol. 2. U.S. Army Test
In the 1617 September 1997 series, there
and Evaluation Command, Aberdeen Proving
was a residual frost-inhibition effect of FBG
Ground, Maryland, p. 745750.
when the sod was frosted a second time
Eaton, R.A. (1989) Unique cold weather testing
without reapplication. In the 17 September
facility. In Proceedings, 5th International Cold
study, the sod was irrigated with 1 cm of
Regions Engineering Specialty Conference (R.L.
water between frostings and the results
Michalowski, Ed.). American Society of Civil
showed patchy frosting on leaf surfaces in
Engineers, New York, p. 335342.
the 10% FBG treatment when the sod was
Ryerson, C.C., and K.J. Claffey (1994) Efficacy of
refrosted; no frosting was observed in either
ice detector hoarfrost observations. In Proceed-
the 15 or 20% treatments. The patchy frost-
ings, Fourth Annual Mount Washington Observatory
ing on the 10% treatment could be related to
Symposium, 2324 June 1995. Focus 2000: Wind, Ice,
the low concentration of the chemical
and Fog. Mount Washington Observatory, North
applied and the dilution due to the irriga-
Conway, New Hampshire, p. 4555.
tion. The patchy frosting is probably not
* Personal communication, Joseph Hanafin, FROST-B-GONE
Company, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, 1998.