Ashton, G.D. (Ed.) (1986) River and Lake Ice Engi-
face currents on a river (Fujita and Komura 1994,
neering. Littleton, Colorado: Water Resources Pub-
Aya et al. 1995), points out that PIV holds great
promise for use in determining ice velocities for a
Aya, S., I. Fujita, and M. Yagyu (1995) Field-
wide range of field situations, e.g., ice runs in com-
observation of flood in a river by video image
plex river channels. It would be a useful adjunct
analysis. Proceedings of Hydraulic Engineering, JSCE,
to various forms of remote sensing of ice movement.
The method can be used with video, photographic,
or radar images of ice movement, provided the field
Dobrowolski, A., A. Kondzielski, and B.
Glowack (1992) Operational using of video tech-
of view and the period between images facilitates
nique for assessment of ice transport in Middle
the pattern-interrogation procedure at the heart of
Vistula River. Proceedings, Conference on Application
the method. Additionally, PIV could be essential for
of Remote Sensing in Operational Hydrology. Cracow
calibrating and validating numerical models of ice
University of Technology, Institute of Water Engi-
movement in diverse situations.
neering and Water Management, Cracow, Poland.
The principal utility of PIV for determining
Fujita, I., and S. Komura (1994) Application of
ice velocities is its ability to produce detailed,
video image analysis for measurements of river-
whole-field information that can readily be used
to interpret the spatial and temporal evolutions
surface flows. Proceedings of Hydraulic Engineering,
JSCE, 38: 733738.
of moving fields of ice. PIV could also be
Murthy, P. (1991) Computerized hydraulic mod-
used to determine concentrations and discharge
eling. Proceedings, ASCE Hydraulic Engineering Con-
rates (if ice thickness were known) of moving
ference, Nashville, Tennessee, pp. 786791.
ice, though that facility of PIV was not examined
Pickering, C. J. D., and N. A. Halliwell (1991)
Speckle photography in fluid flows: Signal recov-
ery with two-step processing. Applied Optics, 23:
Tuthill, A.M., and A.C. Mamone (1997) Selection
of confluence sites with ice problems for structural
Adrian, R.J. (1991) Particle-imaging techniques for
solutions. U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and
experimental fluid mechanics. Annual Review of
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