ing method. Based on the results from these field-
contaminated sediment samples, the detection limit
Arthur, C.L. and J. Pawliszyn (1990) Solid-phase
of the headspace SPME appeared to be similar to
microextraction with thermal desorption using
that of the solvent extraction (Fig. 5b).
fused silica optical fibers. Analytical Chemistry, 62:
The samples used for this experiment were col-
lected from an area that was known to be contam-
Arthur, C.L., L.M. Killam, S. Motlagh, M. Lim, D.W.
inated, thus the high percentage of positive sam-
Potter and J. Pawliszyn (1992a) Analysis of substi-
ples. Typically, most samples submitted for analy-
sis are blank. We suggest that solvent extraction be
solid-phase microextraction. Environmental Science
used only for those sediment and soil samples
and Technology, 26: 979983.
where quantitative results are desired (Fig. 6).
Arthur, C.L., D.W . Potter, K.D. Buchholz, S. Mot-
lagh and J. Pawliszyn (1992b) Solid-phase micro-
Advantages of headspace SPME
extraction for the direct analysis of water: Theory
When samples are analyzed for white phospho-
and practice. LCGC, 10: 656661.
rus, headspace SPME provides the following
Arthur, C.L., L.M. Killam, K.D. Buchholz, J. Pawl-
advantages over the methods based on solvent
mization of solid-phase microextraction. Analyti-
1. Time required for extraction/preconcentra-
cal Chemistry, 64: 19601966.
tion is reduced to five minutes for water sam-
Arthur, C.L., K. Pratt, S. Motlagh, J. Pawliszyn and
R.B. Belardi (1992d) Environmental analysis of
2. Water samples may be analyzed easily in a
organic compounds in water using solid-phase
microextraction. Journal of High Resolution Chromat-
3. Sediment/soil samples can be screened for
ography, 15: 741744.
the presence of white phosphorus.
Arthur, C.L., L.M. Killam, K. Buchholz, D. Potter,
4. Solvent extraction of blank samples can be
M. Chai, Z. Zhang and J. Pawliszyn (1992e) Solid-
eliminated, reducing the production of haz-
phase microextraction: An attractive alternative.
ardous laboratory waste and reducing costs.
Environmental Laboratory, 11: 1015.
Belardi, R.P. and J.B. Pawliszyn (1989) The appli-
cation of chemically modified fused silica fibers
Beyond these initial studies, the following
in the extraction of organics from water matrix
experiments will be performed.
samples and their rapid transfer to capillary col-
1. Gather more data to validate quantitative
umns. Water Pollution Research Journal of Canada,
results for field-contaminated water samples.
2. Determine if salt saturation, which generally
Berg, J.R. (1993) Practical use of automated solid-
increases response of headspace SPME for
phase microextraction. American Laboratory,
BTEX, is appropriate for white phosphorus.
November, p. 1824.
3. Explore ways to calibrate headspace SPME for
Boyd-Boland, A.A., M. Chai, Y.Z. Luo, Z. Zhang,
M.J. Yang, J.B. Pawliszyn and T. Gorecki (1994)
New solvent-free sample preparation techniques
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
based on fiber and polymer technologies. Environ-
mental Science and Technology, 28: 569A574A.
Using the spiked and field-contaminated water
Buchholz, K.D. and J. Pawliszyn (1993) Determi-
and sediment samples, we tested headspace SPME
nation of phenols by solid-phase microextraction
for the analysis of white phosphorus. The SPME
and gas chromatographic analysis. Environmental
fiber was simply exposed to the headspace above
Science and Technology, 27: 28442848.
a sample and then thermally desorbed in the injec-
Buchholz, K.D. and J. Pawliszyn (1994) Optimi-
tion port of the gas chromatograph. We calibrated
zation of solid-phase microextraction conditions
the method to obtain quantitative results for water
for determination of phenols. Analytical Chemis-
samples. Matrix dissimilarities confounded quan-
try, 66: 160167.
titation for sediment samples; however, headspace
Dean, J.R., W .R. Tomlinson, V. Makovsdaya, R.
SPME successfully detected the presence of white
Cumming, M. Hetheridge and M. Comber (1996)
phosphorus in sediment. Using headspace SPME
Solid-phase microextraction as a method for esti-
of water and sediment matrices, detection limits
mating the octanol-water partition coefficient.
appear to be similar to those obtained by solvent
Analytical Chemistry, 68: 130133.