the required resources. This was successful because
involved. In groups with highly successful GD&S,
the lines of communication were open and manage-
communication between the groups often begins at
ment supported integrating new technologies into the
the District GD&S technical committee meetings,
as described in EM 1110-1-2909. These meetings are
fundamental to the success of GIS implementation.
Problem: Understanding the power of GIS
Inclusion in the technical committee meetings of all
divisions, branches, or offices that have some part in
A common issue in the USACE related to GIS is
geospatial data production, storage, or use is ideal.
the lack of understanding about what GIS can do for
the organization. Many USACE managers see it as
Problem: Responsibility for GD&S
another duty instead of as a tool for decision making.
This point of view inhibits use of GIS in support of the
The most common home of GIS at USACE Dis-
USACE mission. GIS enables workers to make sound
tricts is in the Planning Division. The historic home
and supportable decisions for their projects. The time
of CADD is Engineering. In some Districts, organiza-
involved in the decision process, and thus the cost
tional elements are engaged in battles to control GIS.
involved, is not increased, but usually decreased by
This infighting is counterproductive to the USACE
the use of technology and GIS tools.
mission and leads to misconceptions about GIS, which
is a tool to be used for intelligent problem-solving.
In smaller Districts, GIS funding is so sporadic that
For Districts just starting down the GIS path, it
the responsibility for incorporating any GIS into the
is suggested that interested individuals get copies of
normal project process randomly falls onto whichever
other Districts' GD&S or GIS implementation plans.
individuals are willing to work at it.
Ideal champions of the effort are the Executive Office,
for GIS use, and the IM community, for the man-
agement of the data. The role of GIS in support of
In Districts with evolved GIS programs, there is
the civil, military, and environmental missions of
usually more than one person responsible for GIS.
the USACE is expanding. GIS is taught to cadets at
These Districts pointed out that the process of evo-
West Point, which shows the Army's commitment to
lution may have been further assisted by having one
using appropriate technology in support of the mis-
individual as the champion or lead for implementa-
sion. Most state, local, and federal agencies are using
tion. This GIS leader's responsibilities could include
or plan to use GIS, and they expect the USACE to use
ensuring proper use of the system, providing applica-
it in projects in which they partner with USACE.
tion assistance to new users, engaging management
in realizing the power of GIS, and marketing the Dis-
Problem: Communication and coordination
trict's GIS capabilities to potential new customers.
However, accomplishing these tasks would require
We found that there is no clear definition of which
funding, and the costs may be more than some Dis-
groups within each District or Division are responsi-
tricts are willing to pay.
ble for the creation and maintenance of geospatial data
When sections that historically have not used GIS
or for the maintenance of GD&S hardware and soft-
want to become part of the program, they must be
ware. In each District and Division, the first group in
responsible for budgeting for the hardware, software,
the organization that needed to use GD&S or that real-
and assistance necessary to make it successful. In
ized that GD&S would be a valuable tool for the orga-
some successful cases, personnel have been detailed
nization was the one to start developing GD&S capa-
to another section of the District, either to learn GIS
bilities. In some cases, after this initial buy-in by one
or to teach it to new users. Development of GIS capa-
group, other groups in the organization refused to take
bilities is the responsibility of all managers involved,
any responsiblity for GD&S even though their coop-
and the partnership must have commitment, both in
eration would have made the GD&S more efficient.
terms of money and time for the employees, for it to
GIS is a technology that would benefit from a
Problem: Contracting geospatial data work
breakdown of the stovepipe nature of USACE. Data,
applications, and analysis should be shared at the
The contracting officer sees USACE language
District level between sections, branches, and teams.
related to data and standards, but does not know how
This mentality must be encouraged by all managers
to interpret it.