multispectral satellite imagery. Medium resolution sensors include the latest
SPOT and Landsat systems. These sensors provide 10- to 30-m pixels, respec-
tively. SPOT and Landsat also provide 5- and 15-m panchromatic (i.e., black and
white) imagery, respectively. The process of combining the higher resolution
panchromatic pixels with the larger multispectral pixels is called pan-sharpening.
The result is a multispectral image with the higher (i.e., small pixel size) pan-
chromatic spatial resolution. Costs for pan-sharpened medium resolution imagery
covering the Refuge will be in the ,000 to ,000 range. This price includes
radiometric post-processing to remove internal sensor distortions and anomalies,
and geometric registration equivalent to national map accuracy standards for
1:24000 USGS topographic quadrangles. These satellite data sources should pro-
vide an adequate source to delineate vegetation to the subgroup or formation
level as defined by the National Vegetation Classification Standard.
Current high-resolution satellite sensors are IKONOS and QuickBird.
IKONOS acquires 4-m multispectral pixels and 1-m panchromatic pixels.
QuickBird collects 2.8-m multispectral pixels and 0.7-m panchromatic pixels.
Both sources maintain price ranges from ,000 to ,000 to cover an area as
large as the Refuge. As with the medium resolution image, these high-resolution
sources are provided with radiometric and geometric post-processing already