Block 7. (Continued)
U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Environmental Laboratory, 3909 Halls Ferry Road,
Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199
U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory,
72 Lyme Road, Hanover, NH 03755-1290
Science and Technology Corporation, 50 Bank Street, Lebanon, NH 03766
Environmental Engineering Sciences Department, College of Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville,
DynTel, 3530 Manor Drive, Suite 4, Vicksburg, MS 39180
Block 14. (Continued)
During the first year of the project, surface soils were collected from a heavy artillery impact range and at gun
position firing points at Fort Lewis, WA, and at hand grenade ranges at Fort Lewis, Camp Bonneville, WA, and Fort
Rickardson, AK. Groundwater from monitoring wells and surface seepages around the perimeter of the heavy
artillery impact range at Fort Lewis were also sampled for residual explosives. Historical firing records for Fort
Lewis were combined with soil concentration data to estimate the mass of explosives potentially generated over time
at the heavy artillery impact range. Results indicate very low residual concentrations of explosives in high-order
detonation craters from heavy artillery. The hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) concentrations were
always less than 100 ppb in these surface soils. However, concentrations in soils associated with low-order
detonations were extremely high, ranging up to 1.5 percent RDX. These results suggest that range management for
removal of low-order detonations may be advisable to reduce the source of potential contamination. At the firing
points 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4DNT), the residue of a single-based propellant, was detected. Explosives concentra-
tions on hand grenade ranges were relatively high. At Fort Lewis, RDX concentrations ranged up to 51 ppm and at
Fort Richardson up to 0.5 ppm. These preliminary results suggest that management of residual contamination on
hand grenade ranges may be necessary to protect the environment.
An examination of existing data indicated a lack of process information for nitrobenzene, tetryl, nitroglycerin,
and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). Process descriptors for 2,4DNT, 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6DNT), 1,3,5-
trinitrobenzene (1,3,5TNB), 1,3-dinitrobenzene (1,3DNB), 3,5-dinitroaniline (3,5DNA), and picric acid were
incomplete. Transformation/degradation rates were determined for 2,4DNT, 2,6DNT, 1,3,5TNB, and 1,3DNB.
Dissolution rates were determined for neat 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), RDX, and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-
1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) at 10 C and 150 rpm. Decreasing order of dissolution was TNT > HMX > RDX.
However, these results are not necessarily predictive of groundwater concentrations, since these explosives will be
affected by transport parameters and compound-specific retardation effects, as well as dissolution kinetics.
Results to date suggest that management of ranges to control released residuals of high explosives may be
necessary to ensure environmental protection of local receptors including groundwater. The research will contribute
techniques for range characterization and for development of a source term for explosives residuals resulting from
various range activities. These data will be useful for ensuring environmental compliance and the continued use of
test and training ranges as sustainable resources.