THE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATION

The Boussinesq Approximations

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MONIN-OBUKHOV SIMILARITY

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Figure 1. Demonstration of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory

SURFACE-LAYER PROFILES

Including stratification effects

Figure 5. Various suggestions for the functional form of the nondimensional wind speed (φm) and scalar (φh) gradients for stable conditions

Table 1. Predicted behavior of the Deacon and Richardson numbers in very stable conditions

BULK TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS FOR HEAT AND MOMENTUM OVER SEA ICE

Figure 7. Sample potential temperature profiles

Drag coefficient

Figure 10. Snow-surface and ice-surface roughness spectra computed for the profiles in Figure 9

Figure 12. Time series of the neutral-stability, 10-m drag coefficient measured on a fixed mast on Ice Station Weddell

Figure 13. Two long events on Ice Station Weddell that were characterized by a relatively constant wind direction

Figure 15. CDN10 values in Figure 12, averaged over 1-m/s bins of the 10-m wind speed

Scalar bulk transfer coefficients

Figure 19. Model predictions of zT/z0 and zQ/z0 over snow-covered surfaces

THE EKMAN LAYER

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Figure 21. Hodographs of the wind vector in Ekman layers in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres

THERMAL WIND

ROSSBY NUMBER SIMILARITY

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Figure 25. Observations of the height of the core of the low-level jet (zj)

Figure 27. Evaluations of FU and FV for very unstable (150 ≤ ≤ 120), weakly stable (0 ≤ ≤ 30), and very stable (180 ≤ ≤ 210) conditions

Figure 28. Evaluations of FΘ for unstable (60 ≤ ≤ 30), weakly stable (0 ≤ ≤ 30), and moderately stable (60 ≤ ≤ 90) conditions

Figure 29. Yamada's (1976) resistance laws for the longitudinal (A) and transverse

Figure 30. Geostrophic drag coefficient (Cg) and the turning angle (α) as functions of stability

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