1 October 2003
An image that has been geographically referenced or rectified to an
Earth model, usually to a map projection. Sometimes referred to as
geocoded or geometric registration.
Refers to satellites traveling at the angular velocity at which the earth
rotates; as a result, they remain above the same point on earth at all
a NOAA satellite that acquires visible and thermal IR images for
meteorological purposes such as:
Provide continuous day and night weather observations;
Monitor severe weather events such as hurricanes,
thunderstorms, and flash floods;
Relay environmental data from surface collection platforms to a
Perform facsimile transmissions of processed weather data to
low-cost receiving stations;
Monitor the Earth's magnetic field, the energetic particle flux in
the satellite's vicinity, and x-ray emissions from the sun;
Detect distress signals from downed aircraft and ships.
GOES observes the U.S. and adjacent ocean areas from vantage
points 35,790 km (22,240 miles) above the equator at 75 degrees west
and 135 degrees west. GOES satellites have an equatorial, Earth-
synchronous orbit with a 24-hour period, a visible resolution of 1 km, an
IR resolution of 4 km, and a scan rate of 1864 statute miles in three
minutes. See geostationary. The transmission of processed weather
(WEFAX). GOES WEFAX transmits at 1691+ mhz and is accessible via
a ground station with a satellite dish antenna.
GOES carries the following five major sensor systems:
1. The imager is a multispectral instrument capable of sweeping
simultaneously one visible and four infrared channels in a
north-to-south swath across an east-to-west path, providing full
disk imagery once every thirty minutes.
2. The sounder has more spectral bands than the imager for
producing high quality atmospheric profiles of temperature and
moisture. It is capable of stepping one visible and eighteen
infrared channels in a north-to-south swath across an east-to-
3. The Space Environment Monitor (SEM) measures the condition
of the Earth's magnetic field, the solar activity and radiation
around the spacecraft, and transmits these data to a central
4. The Data Collection System (DCS) receives transmitted
meteorological data from remotely located platforms and relays
the data to the end-users.
5. The Search and Rescue Transponder can relay distress
signals at all times, but cannot locate them. While only the
polar-orbiting satellite can locate distress signals, the two types
of satellites work together to create a comprehensive search
and rescue system.
An orbit at 41 000 km in the direction of the Earth's rotation, which
matches speed so that a satellite remains over a fixed point on the
Synchronous with respect to the rotation of the Earth. See