a thermoelectric cooler / warmer ice chest. These
Protection Agency, p. 510.
chests are relatively inexpensive and can be pow-
Hewitt, A.D., and N.J.E. Lukash (1996) Sampling
for in-vial analysis of volatile organic compounds
adapter; they cool down to 40F (approx. 22C)
in soil. American Environmental Laboratory, 7: 15
below ambient temperature. In an air conditioned
environment of about 80F (27C) in the summer,
Hewitt, A.D., T.F. Jenkins, and C.L. Grant (1995)
these devices can lower the temperature to about
Collection, handling, and storage: Keys to im-
5C. Be aware that the orientation of the plug into
proved data quality for volatile organic com-
the jack on the chest will change the chest from a
pounds in soil. American Environmental Laboratory,
cooler to a warmer. If continuous power supply is
not available, ice will have to be supplied daily.
Illias, A.M., and C. Jeager (1993) Evaluation of
sampling techniques for the analysis of volatile
and total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbons
During the planning stage, check with site per-
(TRPH) by IR, GC, and GC/MS methods. In Hy-
sonnel to determine the best way to handle dis-
drocarbon Contaminated Soils (P.T. Kostecki, E.J.
posal of any waste generated by sampling and
Calabrese, and M. Bonazountas, Eds.), Vol. 3,
Chelsea, Michigan: Lewis Publishers, 3: 147165.
Lewis T.E., A.B. Crockett., R.L. Siegrist, and K.
Zarrabi (1994) Soil sampling and analysis for vola-
tile organic compounds. Environmental Monitoring
and Assessment, 30: 213246.
American Society for Testing and Materials
Liikala, T.L., K.B. Olsen, S.S. Teel, and D.C.
(1998) Standard guide for sampling waste and soils
Lanigan (1996) Volatile organic compounds: Com-
for volatile organic compounds. D 4547-98, ASTM,
parison of two sample collection and preservation
West Conshohocken, Penn.
methods. Environmental Science and Technology, 30:
Askari, M.D.F., M.P. Maskarinec, S.M. Smith,
P.M. Beam, and C.C. Travis (1996) Effectiveness
Minnich, M. (1993) Behavior and determination
of purge-and-trap for measurement of volatile or-
of volatile organic compounds in soil: A literature
ganic compounds in aged soils. Analytical Chemis-
review. National Exposure Research Laboratory,
try, 68: 34313433.
Las Vegas, Nevada, EPA 600/R-93/140.
Ball, W.P., G. Xia , D.P. Durfee, R.D. Wilson, M.J.
Minnich, M.M., J.H. Zimmerman, and B.A.
Brown, and D.M. Mackay (1997) Hot methanol
Schumacher (1996) Extraction methods for recov-
extraction for the analysis of volatile organic
ery of volatile organic compounds from fortified,
chemicals in subsurface core samples from Dover
dry soils. Journal of the Association of Official Ana-
Air Force Base, Delaware. Ground Water Monitor-
lytic Chemists, 79: 11981204.
ing & Remediation 17: 10421.
Puls, R.W., and C.J. Paul (1995) Low-flow purg-
Hewitt, A.D. (1999) Storage and preservation of
ing and sampling of ground water monitoring well
soil samples for volatile organic compound analy-
with dedicated systems. Ground Water Monitoring
sis. USA Cold Regions Research and Engineering
& Remediation 15(1): 11623.
Laboratory, Special Report 99-5.
Siegrist, R.L., and P.D. Jenssen (1990) Evaluation
Hewitt, A.D. (1995) Chemical preservation of vola-
of sampling method effects on volatile organic
tile organic compounds in soil. Environmental Sci-
compounds measurements in contaminated soils.
ence and Technology, 31: 6770.
Environmental Science and Technology, 24: 13871392.
Hewitt, A.D. (1998) Comparison of sample prepa-
Smith, J.S., L. Enj, J. Comeau, C. Rose, R.M.
ration methods for the analysis of volatile organic
Schulte, M.J. Barcelona, K. Kloop, M.J. Pilgrim,
compounds in soil samples: Solvent extraction vs
M. Minnich, S. Feenstra, M.J.Urban, M.B. Moore,
vapor partitioning. Environmental Science and Tech-
M.P. Maskarinec, R. Siegrist, J. Parr, and R.E.
nology, 32: 1439.
Claff (1996) Volatile organic compounds in soil:
Hewitt, A.D., and M.H. Stutz (1998) Estimating
Accurate and representative analysis. 3152-4/96/
the total concentration of volatile organic com-
0693. American Chemical Society, 693704.
pounds in soil at sampling locations: Field trials.
U.S. EPA (1997a) Method 5021: Volatile organic
In Proceedings of 14th Annual Waste Testing & Qual-
compounds in soils and other solid matrices us-
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for Evaluating Solid Waste: Physical/Chemical Meth-