65% of the samples. Of the positive samples only
15% had concentrations above 1 g/g; therefore,
Eagle River Flats, Alaska. In Interagency expanded
site investigation: Evaluation of white phosphorus con-
tamination and potential treatability at Eagle River
sediments, it takes the form of very low WP con-
centrations (<1 g/g) over fairly extensive pond
Flats, Alaska (C.H. Racine and D. Cate, Ed.). CRREL
Contract Report to U.S. Army Garrison, Alaska,
bottom areas. These areas are punctuated with
Directorate of Public Works, FY93 Final Report, p.
small localized "hot spots" of much higher con-
centrations (>1 g/g).
Remediation actions for removing or covering
WP particulates in Eagle River Flats will result in
tified in 1994. One exception was the finding in
impacts and changes to salt marsh habitats. There
November (following a flood tide) of low levels
is a need to predict and understand how these
of WP in pond sediments adhering to the bottom
impacts will change the functions and values of
of rafted ice blocks. There is still little or no evi-
these habitats and how lost values can be restored
dence for WP contamination in sediments from
or mitigated. Treatability studies presented in this
mudflats and in tidal gullies. In 1994 high levels
report involve sublimation of WP particles through
of WP continued to be found in pond bottom sed-
drying of contaminated sediments; such drying
iments in Area C, on Racine Island, and in the
Bread Truck Pond. Only low levels of WP contam-
could be accomplished by dredging or draining
ination have been found in Area A ponds.
contaminated ponds. These actions could result in
Although a number of additional samples were
fairly drastic alterations of pond habitats. These
collected in Areas B and D during 1994, no WP
habitats may therefore permanently or temporarily
was found. The distribution of WP in ERF is
lose desirable values or functions, depending on
natural recovery rates or active attempts at restor-
crater density, indicative of past WP input.
ation. The purpose of this review is to determine if
tion of a site, the percent positive samples, the
how other salt marshes have responded to major
maximum concentration value, and the geomet-
alterations such as draining or dredging.
ric mean are useful. However, analysis of WP con-
(This is a truncated version of the Introduction.
centration data sets from a range of different sites
No abstract was provided.)
and scales shows very high levels of variability,
making the use of parametric statistics difficult.
Racine, C.H. (1995) Analysis of the Eagle River
Flats white phosphorus concentration database. In
Normalization of the data using natural log
Interagency expanded site investigation: Evaluation of
transformations and calculation of the geometric
white phosphorus contamination and potential treat-
mean is useful, but a new sampling technique that
ability at Eagle River Flats, Alaska (C.H. Racine and
would reduce the heterogeneity and better repre-
D. Cate, Ed.). CRREL Contract Report to U.S.
sent the WP concentration at a site is needed. The
Army, Alaska, Directorate of Public Works, FY94
use of nonparametric statistics for WP concentra-
Final Report, p. 255276.
tion data may be more appropriate. One method
The purpose of this study was to maintain,
to reduce variability involved stirring the water
update, and analyze the WP concentration data-
above the sediment and collecting a water
base for ERF. Maps showing the location and con-
sediment slurry for analysis. This method was
centrations of samples are presented in a Map
tried with marginal success.
Atlas appendix to this report. Over 1900 WP con-
Because of the high variability in WP concen-
centration measurements have been made on sedi-
trations at a site, it may be difficult or impossible
ment and water samples from ERF since 1991.
to use WP sediment concentration data in risk
During 1994 about 500 sediment and 90 water
samples were collected and analyzed for WP. Sam-
of remediation. Selective sampling of known hot
pling in 1994 was concentrated in tidal gullies,
spots before and after remediation may be useful.
experimental pens, and remediation test sites.
The use of sentinel or penned ducks combined
AEHA collected samples at a wide range of pond-
with mortality measures (by telemetry and
ed areas and also sampled gullies and the Eagle
transect counts) after remediation may be impor-
River in conjunction with invertebrate sampling.
tant to evaluate the success.
Of the 1845 sediment samples that have been
Correlation between WP sediment concentra-
collected from ERF, no WP was detectable in about
tions, the presence of detectable WP particles, and