costly than bioventing. Similarly, the remoteness
nologies HTRW Workshop, 1721 March 1997, Las
of many contaminated sites may allow more time
for the biomediation process, which would favor
Fifth International Symposium on Cold Region
a low-input, low-maintenance landfarming system.
Development, American Society of Civil Engi-
Substantial cost savings may be realized in us-
neers--Technical Council of Cold Regions Engi-
ing landfarming at many remote sites, but abso-
neering, 410 May 1997, Anchorage, Alaska.
lute dollar savings can not be predicted without
Fourth International Symposium, In-Situ and
knowing the specifics for each site. The costs for
Onsite Bioreclamation, 28 April1 May 1997, New
application of any soil treatment technology are
site dependent, and the cost savings derived from
European Union Workshop on Soil Remediation,
using landfarming vary with both site specifics
1619 November 1996, Rothamsted, UK.
and the alternative cleanup strategies that may be
Third Annual International Petroleum Environ-
mental Conference, 2427 September 1996, Albu-
querque, New Mexico.
Soil Science Society of America, 38 November
1996, Indianapolis, Indiana.
Because of lower costs and treatment that was
as effective as bioventing, landfarming should be
given consideration for treating heavy-oil-
contaminated soils in cold regions. Land-farming
Brar, G.S., P.M. Currier, and C.M. Reynolds (1993)
has lower capital, operation, and maintenance
Remediation of petroleum contaminated soils with
costs than bioventing and may be used in situ on
bioventing in cold regions. Superfluid XIV Confer-
some surface-contained spills. Surface applied nu-
ence, 29 November1 December, Washington, D.C.
trients can be used and mixing by tilling is not
Collins, C.M., C.H. Racine, and M.E. Walsh (1993)
essential. Additionally, landfarming is a robust
Fate and effects of crude oil spilled on subarctic
system that can recover from harsh environmen-
permafrost terrain in interior Alaska: Fifteen years
tal changes, such as freezing and drying. This dem-
later. USA Cold Regions Research and Engineer-
onstration has shown that it is effective for both
ing Laboratory, CRREL Report 93-13.
Nichols, T.D., D.C. Wolf, H.B. Rogers, C.A.
Beyrouty, and C.M. Reynolds (1997) Rhizosphere
microbial populations in contaminated soils. Wa-
Reynolds, C.M. (1993a) Contaminated soil treat-
The products of this project include data
ment in cold regions. American Public Works Asso-
that demonstrate landfarming and bioventing to
ciation Reporter, July, p. 26.
be equally successful in treating heavy-oil-
Reynolds, C.M. (1993b) Field measured
contaminated soil. Additionally, there have been
bioremediation rates in a cold region landfarm:
visitors at the site to see the landfarming and
Spatial variability relationships. In Proceedings of
bioventing processes. Weston and Sampson Engi-
the Seventh Annual East Coast Conference on Hydro-
neering and Consulting and AGRA Earth and
carbon Contaminated Soils (P.T. Kostecki and E.J.
Environmental now have experience plus data and
Calabrese, Eds.) Chelsea, Michigan: Lewis Publish-
cost figures to present to potential clients. Re-
ers, p. 487499.
gional, national, and international conferences
Reynolds, C.M., M. Travis, W.A. Braley, and R.J.
where presentations covering this demonstration
Scholze (1994) Applying field expedient
has been made or submitted are listed below.
bioreactors and landfarming in cold climates. In
Second International Symposium, In-Situ and Onsite
Cold Regions Remediation Conference, BP Explo-
Bioreclamation. Chelsea, Michigan: Lewis Publish-
ration (Alaska), 2627 March 1997, Anchorage,
ers, p. 100106.
Walworth, J.L., and C.M. Reynolds (1995)
Second Tri-Service Environmental Technology
Bioremediation of a petroleum contaminated soil:
Workshop, 1012 June 1997, St. Louis, Missouri.
Effects of phosphorus, nitrogen, and temperature.
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Innovative Tech-