The extremely low temperature used in this study
State Highway Transportation Officials.
may have been much more destructive than freez-
ASTM (1984) D4404, Standard test method for
ing at a higher temperature would be.
determination of pore volume and pore volume
2. Examine various pore volume measurement
distribution of rock and soil by mercury intrusion
techniques, including mercury intrusion porosim-
porosimetry. In Annual Book of ASTM Standards,
section 4, volume 04.08. Philadelphia: American
etry. Absorption rates and total absorption vol-
Society for Testing and Materials.
umes measured under differing conditions have
ASTM (1990) C666-84, Standard test method for
the potential for providing useful information on
resistance of concrete to rapid freezing and thaw-
pore sizes related to freezethaw issues.
ing. In Annual Book of ASTM Standards, section 4,
3. Examine pore blocking materials to eliminate
volume 04.02. Philadelphia: American Society for
the negative effect of certain pore ranges. The
Testing and Materials.
pores shown to have a detrimental effect on dura-
British Standards Institute (1975) Method for de-
bility have high capillary attraction and thus may
termination of aggregate crushing values (ACV).
be easy to impregnate with fluids or gels unaffect-
BS-812: Part 110,
ed by freezing. This could be particularly useful in
MDOT (1989) MTM 115-89, Method of testing con-
repair situations where only small amounts of
crete for durability by rapid freezing in air and
aggregate need treatment.
thawing in water. Lansing: Michigan Department
Mindess, S. and J.F. Young (1981) Concrete. Engle-
AASHTO (1978) T103-78, Standard method of test
wood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
for soundness of aggregate by freezing and thaw-
Neville, A.M. (1981) Properties of Concrete, third ed.
ing. Washington, D.C.: American Association of
New York: John Wiley & Sons.