these. Methods to determine melt factors using
Anderson, E.A. (1976) A point energy and mass
digital terrain and forest cover data are needed
balance model of a snow cover. Silver Spring,
where temperature index methods will be used in
Maryland: U.S. National Oceanic and Atmo-
distributed snowmelt models.
spheric Administration NOAA Technical Report
The SNTHERM and SNAP models offer gen-
erality that is missing from the current operational
Anderson, E.A., and N.H. Crawford (1964)The
models. First, use of a full energy balance to drive
synthesis of continuous snowmelt runoff hydro-
the snowmelt model reflects actual compared to
graphs on a digital computer. Technical Report 36,
the somewhat generalized conditions represented
Department of Civil Engineering, Stanford Uni-
by temperature index methods. Secondly, adapt-
ing more physically based approaches to flow
Anderson, E.A., and P.J. Neuman (1984) Inclusion
through a snowpack should permit wider appli-
of frozen ground effects in a flood forecasting
cability to a range of sites, and year-to-year
model. In Proceedings of the Fifth Northern Research
variability. This is in contrast to earlier opera-
Basins Symposium: The Role of Snow and Ice in
tional approaches of defining lag and retention
Northern Basin Hydrology, Vierumaki, Finland,
equations by curve fitting based on one or two
1923 March, p. 5.15.14.
locations, and one or two study seasons. The
Burnash, R.J.C., R.L. Ferral, and R.A. McGuire
SNAP snowpack routing technique is the most
(1973) A generalized streamflow simulation
numerically efficient, and should be validated for
system--Conceptual modeling for digital com-
generality by testing it at additional locations.
puters. U.S. Department of Commerce, National
There is no single existing stand alone model
Weather Service, and State of California, Depart-
that can be recommended for every application.
ment of Water Resources.
In future watershed management systems, it
Brubaker, K., A. Rango, and W . Kustas (1996)
would be best to make the surface energy balance
Incorporating radiation inputs into the snowmelt
and the snowpack internal process algorithms
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separate components. In this way, the choice of a
Carslaw, H.S., and J.C. Jaegar (1959) Conduction
surface energy balance technique could be made
of Heat in Solids. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
independent of the choice of the snowpack inter-
Cline, D.W . (1997) Snow surface energy
nal process technique. For example, improved
exchanges and snowmelt at a continental, mid-
snowpack routing through use of SNTHERM or
latitude alpine site. Water Resources Research, 33(4):
SNAP does not absolutely require additional
meteorological parameters; simplified surface
Colbeck, S.C. (1971) One-dimensional water
energy balances can drive these snowpack models.
through snow. USA Cold Regions Research and
Improvements are needed overall in the way
Engineering, Research Report 296.
forest canopies and other ground cover are
Colbeck, S.C. (1972) A theory of water percola-
accounted for in the otherwise robust surface
tion in snow. Journal of Glaciology, 11(63): 369385.
energy balance approach used by SNTHERM
Colbeck, S.C. (1976) An analysis of water flow in
dry snow. Water Resources Research, 12(3): 523527.
Colbeck, S.C. (1979) Water flow through hetero-
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(1993) Towards predicting temporal changes of
physically-based point snow melt model for dis-
the spectral signature of snow in visible and near-
tributed applications. Hydrologic Processes, 12(10
Remote Sensing of Snow and Ice, Boulder, Colorado,
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1722 May, 1992, Proceedings, Annals of Glaciology,
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tion NWS Technical Memorandum HYDRO-17.
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