Lozowski, E.P. and M.M. Oleskiw (1983) Com-
MRI (1977) Pacific Northwest Icing Study, MRI 77
puter modeling of time dependent rime icing in the
FR-1515, prepared for Bonneville Power Adminis-
atmosphere. CRREL Report 83-2, Cold Regions Re-
tration, Portland, Oregon.
search and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, New
NOAA (19591995) Storm Data and Other Unusual
Weather Phenomena. National Climate Data Center,
Asheville, North Carolina.
Lozowski, E.P., E.M. Gates and L. Makkonen
(1987) Recent progress in the incorporation of
NOAA (1993) Solar and Meteorological Surface
convective heat transfer into cylindrical ice accre-
Observation Network 19611990 Version 1.0. Sep-
tion models. In 1987 International Symposium on
tember. National Climate Data Center, Asheville,
Cold Regions Heat Transfer, American Society of
Summary. National Climate Data Center, Asheville,
Maeno, N., L. Makkonen, K. Nishimura, K.
Kosugi and T. Takahashi (1994) Growth rates of
icicles. Journal of Glaciology, 40(135): 319326.
Pruppacher, H.R. and J.D. Klett (1980) Microphys-
Makkonen, L. (1984) Modeling of ice accretion on
wires. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology,
Southeast Regional Climate Center (1993) Freez-
Makkonen, L. and Y. Fujii (1993) Spacing of icicles.
ing Rain and Sleet Climatology of the Southeastern
Cold Regions Science and Technology, 21: 317322.
United States. NOAA, Columbia, South Carolina.
Marshall, J.S. and W. Palmer (1948) Relation of
Tattelman, P. and I.I. Gringorten (1973) Estimated
drop size to intensity. Journal of Meteorology, 5: 165
Glaze Ice and Wind Loads at the Earth's Surface
for the Contiguous United States. Air Force Cam-
Morgan, V.T. (1973) The heat transfer from bare
bridge Research Laboratories Report AFCRL-TR-
stranded conductors by natural and forced con-
vection in air. International Journal of Heat and Mass
Vilcans, J. and D. Burnham (1989) Climatological
Transfer, 16: 20232034.
study to determine the impact of icing on the Low Level
Morgan, V.T. (1975) The overall convective heat
Windshear Alert System. DOT-TSC-FAA-89-2, U.S.
transfer from smooth circular cylinders. In Ad-
Department of Transportation.
vances in Heat Transfer (T.F. Irvine and J.P. Hartnett,
Wang, P.K. and H.R. Pruppacher (1977) Ac-
Eds.), vol. 11, p. 199264. New York: Academic
celeration to terminal velocity of cloud and rain
drops. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 16: 275280.