Figure 2. Ice jam failure at beginning of ice motion; view is looking upstream.
banks (Fig. 4). The shear walls were grounded on the bed. The unsteadiness
observed is significant because the time lapsed since the water levels initially rose
to the final passage of the ice from upstream was only about 15 minutes. Questions
remain as to what happened to the ice as it traveled downstream, what caused the
initial water level rise, and what combination of water and ice flow resulted in the
Figure 3. Ice jam failure with ice fully mobilized; view is looking downstream.