Figure 13. Active crack passing through a damaged dock.
Figure 14. Horizontal member of dock in contact with the ice cover.
water level is high enough so that the ice surface
He discounted propeller wash as a damage mecha-
contacts the cross members; then the ice can act
nism due to its remoteness from most private shore
directly on the superstructure, as shown in Fig-
structures, and ship waves were considered in-
ure 14. Further discussion of the modes of ice action
significant during periods with an ice cover be-
on structures and illustrative photographs can be
cause they are efficiently damped by ice. This left
found in Wuebben (1983b).
drawdown as the major vessel effect contribut-
Wuebben (1981b,1983a) and Wuebben et al.
ing to shore structure damage and then only for
(1984) evaluated the effects of vessel passage on
periods with ice. His criterion for the onset of
shore structure damage in terms of vessel size.
damage potential was a drawdown in excess of 1