scale factor squared if the seepage force is to be
scaled like the weight force.
where ρw and w are, respectively, the density
and the viscosity of the fluid phase, and κ is de-
fined as the absolute permeability, which depends
only on the geometry of the soil skeleton. Because
ρw, w and κ do not depend on gravity, it follows
dition of eq A10 by subjecting a model to the con-
stant angular velocity Ω such that the following
km ag m
approximate relation holds:
Thus eq A25 becomes
ity, r is a representative radius of the model from
the axis of rotation (Cooke 1991), and rΩ2 is the
Because KFs must equal KF = Kl2 , then
Kt = Kl2 .
or n is often used as the symbol for the inverse of
That is, the time scale factor is equal to the length
the length scale factor, i.e., 1/Kl.