in contact with the sample and thus will not load
radius to minimize stress error in calculations.
the sample. Both heaters will be controlled using
Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 28: 160161.
feedback controllers. An electrical slip ring as-
Croce, P., V. Pane, D. Znidarcic, H.-Y. Ko, H.W .
sembly will be installed on the centrifuge axis to
Olsen and R.L. Schiffman (1985) Evaluation of
Application of Centrifuge Modelling to Geotechnical
is operating. The centrifuge will be operated in a
Design, p. 381401 (W.H. Craig, Ed.). Rotterdam:
coldroom at a temperature below freezing (e.g.,
5C), and the heaters will be controlled to main-
Kay, B.D. and E. Perfect (1988) State of the art:
tain upper and lower sample surfaces at desired
Heat and mass transfer in freezing soils. Ground
temperatures. Thin sectioning and image analyz-
Freezing 88, Proceedings of the Fifth International
ing techniques will be used to examine the lens
Symposium on Ground Freezing (R.H. Jones and J.T.
ice distribution, orientation and thickness.
Holden, Ed.). Rotterdam: Balkema.
The modeling at different scales or accelera-
Langhaar, H.L. (1951) Dimensional Analysis and
tion fields will be used to examine the validity of
Theory of Models. New York: John Wiley and Son.
our frost heave modeling. Specifically a series of
different scale models of the same prototype will
between ice and water in porous media. Soil Sci-
be tested, and the model displacement vs. time
ence, 126(2): 7780.
records will be interpreted to see if each of the
Miller, R.D. (1978) Frost heaving in non-colloi-
prototype heave vs. time predictions are essen-
dal soils. Proceedings of the Third International Con-
tially the same. If the one-dimensional heave pro-
ference on Permafrost, vol. 1, p. 708713.
cess can be modeled, then other tests will be con-
Miller, E.E. (1980a) Similitude and scaling of soil-
ducted regarding heave forces and the interaction
water phenomena. In Chapter 12, Applications of
of heaving soil with foundation and other struc-
Soil Physics (D. Hillel, Ed.). New York: Academic
Additional analysis will compare experimen-
Miller, R.D. (1980b) Freezing phenomena in soils.
tal measurements to predictions using a recent
In Chapter 11, Applications of Soil Physics (D. Hillel,
version of the Rigidice model (Black 1994). While
Ed.). New York: Academic Press.
the exact location and thickness of individual ice
Miller, R.D. (1990) Scaling of freezing phenom-
lenses in the model and prototype will most likely
ena in soils. In Chapter 1, Scaling in Soil Physics:
not be predictable, the total amount of heave, pen-
Principles and Applications (D. Hillel and D.E. Elrick,
etration and fluxes should. This will be the topic
Ed.). Madison, Wisconsin: Soil Science Society of
of future discussions.
Miller, E.E. and R.D. Miller (1955) Theory of cap-
illary flow: I. Practical implications. Soil Science
Society of America Proceedings, 19: 267271.
Miller, E.E. and R.D. Miller (1956) Physical theory
Black, P.B. (1985) The RIGIDICE model of frost
for capillary flow phenomena. Journal of Applied
heave and its input functions. Ph.D. Thesis, Cornell
Physics, 27: 324332.
Mitchell, J.K. (1976) Fundamentals of Soil Behav-
Black, P.B. (1992) Soil water: liquid, vapor and
ior. New York: John Wiley and Son.
ice. Encyclopedia of Earth System Science, 4: 259
Nakano, Y. (1990) Quasi-steady problems in freez-
ing soils: 1. Analysis on the steady growth of an
Black, P.B. (1994) Heave 4.0, A finite difference
ice layer. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 17:
implementation of the RIGIDICE model. Unpub-
O'Neill, K. and Miller, R.D. (1985) Exploration
Black, P.B. and Miller, R.D. (1985) A continuum
of a rigid ice model of frost heave. Water Resources
approach to modeling frost heaving. Freezing and
Research, 21(3): 281296.
Thawing of Soil Water Systems (D.M. Anderson and
Pokrovsky, G.I. and I.S. Fyodorov (1969) Centri-
P.J. Williams, Ed.). American Society of Civil En-
fuge Model Testing in the Construction Industry. En-
gineers, Technical Council on Cold Regions En-
glish translation from Russian by Building Re-
gineering, p. 3645.
search Establishment Library Translation Service.
Cooke, B. (1991) Selection of operative centrifuge