(167 ft [50.9 m] for 90% of the points) had a rel-
atively high cost (ca. 0,000). Consequently, it
was decided that the use of this system to ob-
Challender, S. (1993) Response `93 geographic in-
serve the extensive flooding was not appropriate.
formation system demonstration and application.
Significant progress has been made in our
Technical summary. Hanover, New Hampshire:
ability to rapidly acquire data to meet the needs
USA Corps of Engineers Remote Sensing/GIS
of the emergency responders during a large-scale
Center, p. 17.
disaster. Technological advances in computer
Environmental Systems Research Institute (1993)
speeds and peripheral equipment enable much
ARCUSA database. Redlands, California.
faster production of hard copy maps than has
Federal Emergency Management Agency (1993)
previously been possible. Electronic data transfer
Response `93 Wasatch Fault earthquake exercise,
permits spatial information to move over data
710 June 1993, Salt Lake City, Utah.
networks and to be brought up on workstations
Federal Geographic Data Committee (1992) Con-
in near-real-time. With communication of lessons
tent standards for spatial metadata--draft. Reston,
Virginia: U.S. Geological Survey.
agencies, an increasingly effective NSDI (provid-
National Research Council (1993) Toward a coor-
ing information about what spatial data are
dinated spatial data infrastructure for the Nation.
available, where they are, and how to obtain
Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
them), and preparedness for areas that are most
U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research
likely to suffer future disasters, our ability to pro-
Laboratory (1988) Geographic Resources Analysis
vide condition maps, maps that result from anal-
Support System--GRASS4.0. Champaign, Illinois:
ysis, and maps showing the results of models
U. S. Bureau of the Census (1991) TIGER/Line
spills of volatile materials) will continue to get
census files, 1990 technical documentation. Wash-
ington, DC: U. S. Bureau of the Census.
U.S. Geological Survey (1989) Digital line graphs
from 1:100,000-scale maps, data users guide 2. Res-