The 85-GHz SSM/I ice product
aided navigation and planning of
scientific station stops on a daily
basis. For example, the ship was re-
routed to the west of 180 because
of the 100% total ice concentration
to the east. The 100% ice concen-
tration areas were consistent during
the experiment, and the consistency
was confirmed using the three algo-
rithms and helicopter surveys. The
SSM/I ice maps provided an over-
view, which aided the process of de-
ciding how to proceed from the North Pole. The SSM/I and AVHRR data
provided ice and weather information during AOS-94 and met the criteria for
being operational, that is, timeliness, coverage and interpretation. It was clear-
ly demonstrated that the ships could easily reach their goal by having a mini-
ice center in the high Arctic, where communication is difficult and expensive.
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ice interaction loads measurements on-board the Louis S. St-Laurent during
the 1994 trans-Arctic voyage: Trip report and data summary. Submitted to
Fleet Systems, Canadian Coast Guard, by A.R. Engineering, Calgary, Alberta,
Canada, and Science and Technology Corporation, Columbia, MD, U.S.A.
. (1991) Passive microwave remote sensing
of snow covered floating
ice during spring conditions in the Arctic and Antarctic. Doctor of Philoso-
phy, Graduate Programme in Earth and Space Science, York University, North
York, Ontario, Canada.
Garrity, C. (1992) Characterization of snow on floating ice and case studies of
brightness temperature changes during the onset of melt. In Microwave Remote
Sensing of Sea Ice. Geophysical Monograph 68, p. 313326.
Lomax, A.S., D. Lubin and R.H. Whritner (1995) The potential for inter-
preting total and multiyear ice concentrations in SSM/I 85.5 GHz imagery.
Remote Sensing of Environment, 54: 1326.
Lubin, D., C. Garrity, R.O. Ramseier and R.H. Whritner (1996) Evaluation
of the special sensor microwave imager 85.5 GHz channels for total sea ice
concentration retrieval during the 1994 Arctic Ocean Section. Submitted to
Remote Sensing of the Environment.
Steffen et al. (1992) The estimation of geophysical parameters using passive
microwave algorithms. In Microwave Remote Sensing of Sea Ice. Geophysical
Monograph 68, p. 201231.