during the expedition. Global positioning system receivers aboard the helicop-
ters provided precise coordinates of large floes, leads and other features that
were plotted aboard both icebreakers. A Canadian Coast Guard helicopter
with an Atmospheric Environment Service ice observer aboard flew daily ice
reconnaissance flights in sectors 2030 nautical miles ahead along the proposed
expedition track. This information, coupled with radar and visual observations
from both ships, greatly enhanced tactical navigation during the voyage.
Lawson W. Brigham
Chief Scientist, AOS-94
Captain, U.S. Coast Guard
Commanding Officer, USCGC Polar Sea
Philip O. Grandy
Chief Scientist, CCGS Louis S.
Captain, Canadian Coast Guard
Commanding Officer, CCGS Louis S.